Problem Solving (2012)
In addition to assessing students' literacies in reading, mathematics, and science, PISA 2012 assessed the 15-year-old's competence in Problem Solving.
It is defined as the cognitive ability to comprehend and solve problems which have no clear paths to a solution, therefore, reaching one's potential as a constructive and reflective citizen. Thus, real-life problem situations are simulated, such as dealing with an electronic device that does not function properly or an unfamiliar ticket machine. As such, students' general abilities to reason, monitor, and readjust problem-solving procedures and their readiness to do so are assessed.